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The Spaniards and Portuguese
Whilst the English were busied for centuries in raising the structure of their national prosperity upon the most solid foundations, the Spaniards and the Portuguese made a fortune rapidly by means of their discoveries and attained to great wealth in a very short space of time. But it was only the wealth of a spendthrift who had won the first prize in a lottery, whereas the wealth of the English may be likened to the fortune accumulated by the diligent and saving head of a family. The former may for a time appear more to be envied than the latter on account of his lavish expenditure and luxury; but wealth in his case is only a means for prodigality and momentary enjoyment, whereas the latter will regard wealth chiefly as a means of laying a foundation for the moral and material well-being of his latest posterity.
In our account of the Hanseatic League we have shown how in England agriculture and sheep farming have been promoted by foreign trade; how at a subsequent period, through the immigration of foreign artificers, fleeing from persecution in their native land, and also owing to the fostering measures adopted by the British Government, the English woollen manufacturing industry had gradually attained to a flourishing condition; and how, as a direct consequence of that progress in manufacturing industry, as well as of the wise and energetic measures adopted by Queen Elizabeth, all the foreign trade which formerly had been monopolised by foreigners had been successfully diverted into the hands of the merchants at home.
In respect to temperament and manners, to the origin and
language of their inhabitants, no less than to their political
connection and geographical position, Holland, Flanders, and
Brabant constituted portions of the German Empire. The more
frequent visits of Charlemagne and his residence in the vicinity of
these countries must have exercised a much more powerful influence
on their civilisation than on that of more distant German
territories. Furthermore, Flanders and Brabant were specially
favoured by nature as respects agriculture and manufactures, as
Holland was as respects cattle-farming and commerce.
The spirit of industry, commerce, and liberty having attained full influence in Italy, crossed the Alps, permeated Germany, and erected for itself a new throne on the shores of the northern seas, the Emperor Henry I, the father of the liberator of the Italian municipalities, promoted the founding of new cities and the enlargement of older ones which were already partly established on the sites of the ancient Roman colonies and partly in the imperial domains.
At the revival of civilisation in Europe, no county was in so favourable a position as Italy in respect to commerce and industry. Barbarism had not been able entirely to eradicate the culture and civilisation of ancient Rome. A genial climate and a fertile soil, notwithstanding an unskilful system of cultivation, yielded abundant nourishment for a numerous population. The most necessary arts and industries remained as little destroyed as the municipal institutions of ancient Rome. Prosperous coast fisheries served everywhere as nurseries for seamen, and navigation along Italy’s extensive sea-coasts abundantly compensated her lack of internal means of transport. Her proximity to Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt, and her maritime intercourse with them, secured for Italy special advantages in the trade with the East which had previously, though not extensively, been carried on through Russia with the countries of the North. By means of this commercial intercourse Italy necessarily acquired those branches of knowledge and those arts and manufactures which Greece had preserved from the civilisation of ancient times.
Бахты-Гирей: фронтирные элиты в противодействии стабилизации границ Российской и Османской империй в первой трети ХVIII в.
Противодействие попыткам межевания границ было заметно еще при подписании Бахчисарайского договора 1681 г. с Россией, когда отказались от шерти крымские карачи-беи1. После заключения Константинопольского мира 1700 г. наиболее непримиримыми противниками демаркации границ выступили запорожские казаки, крымские татары, ногайцы и даже турецкие янычары, также вовлеченные в наезднические предприятия. Крымско-татарские и ногайские мурзы постоянно требовали от хана санкции на продолжение набегов, тот был вынужден с подобной просьбой обращаться к султану, мотивируя тем, что невозможно «прокормить» подвластные орды без грабежа северных соседей, на что, естественно, получал отказ. Между Запорожской Сечью и Бахчисараем наметилось сближение. В 1703 г. царь Петр І требовал, чтобы в комиссию по размежеванию границ не допускались крымские татары и ногайцы, чтобы они, сговорившись с запорожцами, не сорвали весь ход разграничения. В итоге демаркация границ в Северном Причерноморье произошла только в октябре 1705 г., тогда как со стороны Кубани и Азова (в силу меньшего противодействия) граница была обозначена годом раньше.