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The National System of Political Economy (2)

Chapter 2

The Hansards

The spirit of industry, commerce, and liberty having attained full influence in Italy, crossed the Alps, permeated Germany, and erected for itself a new throne on the shores of the northern seas, the Emperor Henry I, the father of the liberator of the Italian municipalities, promoted the founding of new cities and the enlargement of older ones which were already partly established on the sites of the ancient Roman colonies and partly in the imperial domains.

The National System of Political Economy (1)

Chapter 1

The Italians

At the revival of civilisation in Europe, no county was in so favourable a position as Italy in respect to commerce and industry. Barbarism had not been able entirely to eradicate the culture and civilisation of ancient Rome. A genial climate and a fertile soil, notwithstanding an unskilful system of cultivation, yielded abundant nourishment for a numerous population. The most necessary arts and industries remained as little destroyed as the municipal institutions of ancient Rome. Prosperous coast fisheries served everywhere as nurseries for seamen, and navigation along Italy’s extensive sea-coasts abundantly compensated her lack of internal means of transport. Her proximity to Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt, and her maritime intercourse with them, secured for Italy special advantages in the trade with the East which had previously, though not extensively, been carried on through Russia with the countries of the North. By means of this commercial intercourse Italy necessarily acquired those branches of knowledge and those arts and manufactures which Greece had preserved from the civilisation of ancient times.

Бахты-Гирей: фронтирные элиты в противодействии стабилизации границ Российской и Османской империй в первой трети ХVIII в.

В условиях современного развития гуманитарного знания исследование фронтирных пространств и разработка нового инструментария для их изучения позволила выйти на новый уровень понимания процессов, разворачивавшихся на степном пограничье Российской и Османской империй на протяжении ХVIII в.

Бахты-Гирей: фронтирные элиты в противодействии стабилизации границ Российской и Османской империй в первой трети ХVIII в.

Противодействие попыткам межевания границ было заметно еще при подписании Бахчисарайского договора 1681 г. с Россией, когда отказались от шерти крымские карачи-беи1. После заключения Константинопольского мира 1700 г. наиболее непримиримыми противниками демаркации границ выступили запорожские казаки, крымские татары, ногайцы и даже турецкие янычары, также вовлеченные в наезднические предприятия. Крымско-татарские и ногайские мурзы постоянно требовали от хана санкции на продолжение набегов, тот был вынужден с подобной просьбой обращаться к султану, мотивируя тем, что невозможно «прокормить» подвластные орды без грабежа северных соседей, на что, естественно, получал отказ. Между Запорожской Сечью и Бахчисараем наметилось сближение. В 1703 г. царь Петр І требовал, чтобы в комиссию по размежеванию границ не допускались крымские татары и ногайцы, чтобы они, сговорившись с запорожцами, не сорвали весь ход разграничения. В итоге демаркация границ в Северном Причерноморье произошла только в октябре 1705 г., тогда как со стороны Кубани и Азова (в силу меньшего противодействия) граница была обозначена годом раньше.

Бахты-Гирей: фронтирные элиты в противодействии стабилизации границ Российской и Османской империй в первой трети ХVIII в.

Не приходится сомневаться в хорошей организации этого нападения. Впереди войска кубанцы «посылали шпионов, которые и сообщали им о состоянии тех мест, куда потом следовало направиться для грабежа». Российская сторона оказалась явно неготовой к отражению набега. Еще в июле 1717 г. царицынский комендант Беклемишев предупреждал казанского губернатора П. Салтыкова о намерении кубанцев идти «под государевы города вплоть до Симбирска». Но в итоге набег явился полной неожиданностью для местных властей, которые не предприняли никаких мер предосторожности или защиты. Весьма показательно происхождение одного из шпионов Бахты-Гирея — М. Афанасьева, проводившего войска султана известными только ему дорогами между Доном и Волгой. Сам он беглый рекрутом, бежавший с двумя товарищами в Астрахань, а оттуда на Кубань «для воровства».

Бахты-Гирей: фронтирные элиты в противодействии стабилизации границ Российской и Османской империй в первой трети ХVIII в.

Войска Бахты-Гирея и Джан-Темира были разбиты, а их предводители бежали в Малую Кабарду. Не вполне ясно, о том ли случае повествует другой документ, датированный 22 марта 1726 г., где указано, что после разгрома Бахты-Гирей и Джан-Темир скрывались в «горах во владениях Абазинских черкес», когда на Кубани в должности сераскера утвердился Сали (Салаат?)-Гирей, сын Саадет-Гирея. Интересно заметить — российские власти пытались тогда играть на противоречиях в доме Гиреев — пробуя соблазнить мятежников — Бахты-Гирея и его «гостя» из Крыма возможностью перехода в российское подданство. Между тем посланец от российского правительства, отправленный с данной миссией, не смог найти тогда ни Джан-Темира, ни самого Бахты-Гирея. Еще раз подчеркнем авторскую мысль — фигура и действия одного человека — Бахты-Гирея — теперь уже не человека «второго плана в истории», а ставшего «первым», стали оказывать серьезное дестабилизирующее воздействие (с позиций обеих империй) на состояние региональной безопасности и даже (в определенной части!) на состояние межгосударственных отношений. Можно уверенно говорить о том, что такое воздействие ощущалось на громадном пространстве, в котором можно выделись три узловых и болезненных (для всех главных игроков на Кавказе и смежных с ним землях — России, Крымского ханства, Османской империи) локусах — Кабарду, Калмыцкое ханство и Западный Кавказ — Правобережную Кубань и Черкесию.

The National System of Political Economy (36)

Chapter 36

The Commercial Policy of the German Zollverein

If any nation whatever is qualified for the establishment of a national manufacturing power, it is Germany; by the high rank which she maintains in science and art, in literature and education, in public administration and in institutions of public utility; by her morality and religious character, her industry and domestic economy; by her perseverance and steadfastness in business occupations; as also by her spirit of invention, by the number and vigour of her population; by the extent and nature of her territory, and especially by her highly advanced agriculture, and her physical, social, and mental resources.

The National System of Political Economy (35)

Chapter 35

Continental Politics

The highest ultimate aim of rational politics is (as we have shown in our Second Book) the uniting of all nations under a common law of right, an object which is only to be attained through the greatest possible equalisation of the most important nations of the earth in civilisation, prosperity, industry, and power, by the conversion of the antipathies and conflicts which now exist between them into sympathy and harmony. But the solution of this problem is a work of immensely long duration. At the present time the nations are divided and repelled from one another by manifold causes; chief among these are conflicts about territory. As yet, the apportionment of territory to the European nations does not correspond to the nature of things. Indeed, even in theory, people are not yet agreed upon the fundamental conditions of a just and natural apportionment of territory. Some desire that their national territory should be determined according to the requirements of their metropolis without regard to language, commerce, race, and so forth, in such a way that the metropolis should be situated in the centre and be protected as much as possible against foreign attacks. They desire to have great rivers for their frontiers. Others maintain, and apparently with greater reason, that sea-coasts, mountains, language, and race, constitute better frontiers than great rivers. There still are nations who are not in possession of those mouths of rivers and sea-coasts which are indispensable to them for the development of their commerce with the world and for their naval power.

The National System of Political Economy (34)

Chapter 34

The Insular Supremacy and the German Commercial Union

What a great nation is at the present day without a vigorous commercial policy, and what she may become by the adoption of a vigorous commercial policy, Germany has learnt for herself during the last twenty years. Germany was that which Franklin once said of the State of New Jersey, ’a cask which was tapped and drained by its neighbours on every side.’ England, not contented with having ruined for the Germans the greater part of their own manufactories and supplied them with enormous quantities of cotton and woollen fabrics, excluded from her ports German grain and timber, nay from time to time also even German wool. There was a time when the export of manufactured goods from England to Germany was ten times greater than that to her highly extolled East Indian Empire. Nevertheless the all-monopolising islanders would not even grant to the poor Germans what they conceded to the conquered Hindoos, viz. to pay for the manufactured goods which they required by agricultural produce. In vain did the Germans humble themselves to the position of hewers of wood and drawers of water for the Britons. The latter treated them worse than a subject people. Nations, like individuals, if they at first only permit themselves to be ill-treated by one, soon become scorned by all, and finally become an object of derision to the very children. France, not contented with exporting to Germany enormous quantities of wine, oil, silk, and millinery, grudged the Germans their exports of cattle, grain, and flax; yes, even a small maritime province formerly possessed by Germany and inhabited by Germans, which having become wealthy and powerful by means of Germany, at all times was only able to maintain itself with and by means of Germany, barred for half a generation Germany’s greatest river by means of contemptible verbal quibbles. To fill up the measure of this contempt, the doctrine was taught from a hundred professorial chairs, that nations could only attain to wealth and power by means of universal free trade. Thus it was; but how is it now? Germany has advanced in prosperity and industry, in national self-respect and in national power, in the course of ten years as much as in a century. And how has this result been achieved? It was certainly good and beneficial that the internal tariffs were abolished which separated Germans from Germans; but the nation would have derived small comfort from that if her home industry had thenceforth remained freely exposed to foreign competition. It was especially the protection which the tariff of the Zollverein secured to manufactured articles of common use, which has wrought this miracle. Let us freely confess it, for Dr Bowring(1*) has incontrovertibly shown it, that the Zollverein tariff has not, as was before asserted, imposed merely duties for revenue — that it has not confined itself to duties of ten to fifteen per cent as Huskisson believed — let us freely admit that it has imposed protective duties of from twenty to sixty per cent as respects the manufactured articles of common use.

The National System of Political Economy (33)

Chapter 33

The Insular Supremacy and the Continental Powers — North America and France

In all ages there have been cities or countries which have been pre-eminent above all others in industry, commerce, and navigation; but a supremacy such as that which exists in our days, the world has never before witnessed. In all ages, nations and powers have striven to attain to the dominion of the world, but hitherto not one of them has erected its power on so broad a foundation. How vain do the efforts of those appear to us who have striven to found their universal dominion on military power, compared with the attempt of England to raise her entire territory into one immense manufacturing, commercial, and maritime city, and to become among the countries and kingdoms of the earth, that which a great city is in relation to its surrounding territory. to comprise within herself all industries, arts, and sciences; all great commerce and wealth; all navigation and naval power — a world’s metropolis which supplies all nations with manufactured goods, and supplies herself in exchange from every nation with those raw materials and agricultural products of a useful or acceptable kind, which each other nation is fitted by nature to yield to her — a treasure-house of all great capital — a banking establishment for all nations, which controls the circulating medium of the whole world, and by loans and the receipt of interest on them makes all the peoples of the earth her tributaries. Let us, however, do justice to this Power and to her efforts. The world has not been hindered in its progress, but immensely aided in it, by England. She has become an example and a pattern to all nations — in internal and in foreign policy, as well as in great inventions and enterprises of every kind; in perfecting industrial processes and means of transport, as well as in the discovery and bringing into cultivation uncultivated lands, especially in the acquisition of the natural riches of tropical countries, and in the civilisation of barbarous races or of such as have retrograded into barbarism. Who can tell how far behind the world might yet remain if no England had ever existed? And if she now ceased to exist, who can estimate how far the human race might retrograde? Let us then congratulate ourselves on the immense progress of that nation, and wish her prosperity for all future time. But ought we on that account also to wish that she may erect a universal dominion on the ruins of the other nationalities? Nothing but unfathomable cosmopolitanism or shopkeepers’ narrow-mindedness can give an assenting answer to that question. In our previous chapters we have pointed out the results of such denationalisation, and shown that the culture and civilisation of the human race can only be brought about by placing many nations in similar positions of civilisation, wealth, and power; that just as England herself has raised herself from a condition of barbarism to her present high position, so the same path lies open for other nations to follow: and that at this time more than one nation is qualified to strive to attain the highest degree of civilisation, wealth, and power. Let us now state summarily the maxims of State policy by means of which England has attained her present greatness. They may be briefly stated thus: